Thursday, December 5, 2019
Various Spheres Society Especially Health Ã¢â¬Myassignmenthelp.Com
Question: Discuss About The Various Spheres Society Especially Health? Answer: Introducation Globalization is considered to be the root cause of all problems in the world including, the low wages, challenged democracy, and violation of various human rights. Recently, globalization is said to be the reason for more than 750, 000 premature deaths (Johnston 2017). In 2007, around 411,100 people died because of breathing in fine particles of air that had been polluted with particulate matter (PM2.5). Since economic activity has become an interconnection of human activities across the world, pressure is exerted on various spheres of society, especially health care. In Asia, air pollution has increasingly began to rival the air pollution levels that prevailed in Europe and America in the early 20th century. Air pollution is a major contributor to the global health burden due to reduced air quality. There are complains of poor air quality in Nepal, and especially in Kathmandu, but there is little attention on outdoor interventions to improve air quality compared to interventions directed at indoor air pollution. In Kathmandu, air pollution arises due to growing urbanization. How the Challenge Emerged As the world strives to gain economic prosperity, air pollution emerges as a health hazard due to various human activities aimed at ensuring economic development, transportation and motorization, urbanization, and energy consumption. Interconnection of human activity gas led to increased flow of capital, movement of people, and trading patterns that have led to what is regarded as the Great Acceleration. This acceleration has exerted lot of pressure on the environment resulting in the alteration of various components of the earths system, including the air, and the distortion of the Earths natural system to levels deemed unsafe for social and biological well-being (McMichael 2013). In view of the various activities, pollution in Nepal stems from vehicles and burning smoke from brush fires, brick kilns, and cooking stoves (McMichael 2013: p. 1336). The pollution from these sources has detrimental effects on the environment in addition to peoples health because after floating into the Himalayas to the north, the black carbon from the soot absorbs adequate quantities of solar energy that subsequently settles on glaciers and snow. How the issue of air quality is being addressed? The WHO developed air quality guidelines that act as an international reference for the adverse effects of air pollution on individuals health by providing risk estimates for exposure to the air pollutants. The guidelines were first published in 1987 and were referred to as the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, and they provide the recommended thresholds for air pollutants (Chen and Kan 2008). These guidelines help to inform countries about the effects of their efforts towards reducing air pollution on a global level. That is why based on the 2014 WHO guidelines, Nepal was ranked position 177 out of 178 as a call for assertive measures meant to improve its Environmental Performance Index. Action Required The kind of action required in Nepal is one that aims to reduce the emission of smoke from the various sources using cost-effective measures while keeping in mind that the citizens are struggling to meet their basic daily needs (Mar, Panday, and Rupakheti 2015). Interventions in Nepal There are already well laid out policies that are meant to ensure the air quality within the region is purified and acceptable. However, little has been done to implement these policies aimed at cleaning up the air in Nepal in reference to the recommended guidelines that indicate the stipulated thresholds for air pollution. The public is concerned about the air quality, and have taken up the matter into their own hands. These people engage in protests and there is a consistent flow of articles that urge the government to take the necessary action aimed at cleaning up the air. These protests and publications yielded positive outcomes because the police began to enforce the prevailing laws that aim to ensure that the air quality if upheld. One such law was to ensure that vehicles involved in public transportation and were more than 20 years old were to be removed from the road (Groves, 2017). In addition to the WHO guidelines on air quality, researchers in Nepal are trying to establish the levels of black carbon that are responsible for the glacier melt. This will help to determine the levels of smoke emitted in the environment that results in lethal effects of black carbon. Subsequently, policy makers and law enforcers will work collaboratively to formulate and reinforce just the recommended human activities. Boundaries to Cross Interventions to address air pollution have mainly crossed boundaries to affect families in view of indoor air pollution. Access to fuel-efficient stoves has been improved and families are forced to leave the traditional cooking stoves and use the contemporary improved stoves (Practical Action 2017). Shift of Values Individuals in Nepal will need to shift their values in an array of ways. First, the renewal of their automobiles because vehicles deemed worthless are presumed to emit most of the smoke arising from vehicles. Also, there has been a shift from using generators in the case of a power cut in the wake of disasters to the use of solar power and electric vehicles. Thereby, in the case of a power cut, solar street lights help to light up most cities within the country (Shrestha 2016). Role of Technology Technology has been utilized in Nepal in an array of ways to help improve its Environmental Performance Index. Technology has been involved in reducing air pollution through the evolution stoves from traditional ones to improved stoves that emit minimal smoke. This transition requires the use of a smoke hood that draws all the smoke (Environment ministry pledges to make Nepal indoor air pollution free by 2022 2017). Also, the use of solar power and electric vehicles use technology that aims at preventing the emission of smoke, which is the salient cause of air pollution in Nepal. Conclusion Globalization has brought about many changes in the natural setting of the earths system. In Nepal, the rising urbanization has led to increased economic activities that have brought about outdoor pollution. There is indoor pollution as well, which has been addressed using technology as a shift from using traditional stoves to modern stoves continues. There are efforts to enhance the already laid down policies through use of law enforcers, and this is meant to improve the countrys Environmental Performance Index. References Chen, B., and Kan, H. (2008) Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 13 (2), 94101. Environment ministry pledges to make Nepal indoor air pollution free by 2022. (2017) TheHimalayan Times, March 20 [online]. available from https://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/environment-ministry-pledges-make-nepal- indoor-air-pollution-free-2022/ [accessed 12 September 2017]. Groves, S. (2017) Nepals air pollution threatens humans and glaciers [online]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.pri.org/stories/2017-04-06/nepal-s-air-pollution-threatens-humans-and- glaciers [accessed 13 September 2017].. Johnston, I. (2017) Air pollution from globalization linked to premature deaths of more than 750,000 people a year. Independent, March 29 [online]. available from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/air-pollution-globalisation-deaths-750000-people-per-year-breathing-health-smog-fossil-a7656576.html [accessed 13 September 2017]. Mar, K., Panday, A., Rupakheti, M. (2015) A clear view for Kathmandu: Improving air quality in the Kathmandu Valley. Potsdam: Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies. McMichael, A. J. (2013) Globalization, climate change, and human health. The New England Journal of Medicine 368, 1335-1343. Practical Action. (2017) Reducing indoor air pollution in Nepal [online] available from https://practicalaction.org/smoke-hoods-stoves-nepal [accessed 13 September 2017]. Shrestha, K. D. (2016) Clearing the air in Kathmandu. International Institute for Environment and Development [online]. available from https://www.iied.org/clearing-air- kathmandu [accessed 12 September 2017]..